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Terminology
 
Below is a list of terms that every judoka should know...these terms are used in training and in competitive events. The terms are in alphabetical order...if you have a term you would like to see listed, please let us know and we will add it!

Dojo - Translated as "the place to learn the way"; the educational establishment in which Judo is taught

Hajime - command to start; given to begin or resume a match

Hantei - request for judges to render a decision

Hasokumake - very serious infringement; contestants are returned to their starting positions, the referee steps between them, points and calls out hasokumake; this must penalty must be agreed upon by all three judges since it is an immediate disqualification

Hikiwake - indication of a draw match; used in circumstances where provisions for overtime have not been made

Ippon - declaration of a full point; announced when a throw has been executed with sufficant force, placing the opponent squarely on his or her back; this is also awarded for pinning an opponent on his or her back for 25 seconds, a submission due to a choke or armbar, or the accumulation of two half points / excessive infractions

Judogi - a judo outfit consisting of a top, pants and belt

Judoka - a student of Judo

Kansetsuwaza - arm techniques

Kuzushi - balance

Kata - pre-arranged forms used to practice a particular technique

Koka - declaration of a near Yuko; awarded when an opponent has been thrown with hip girdle contact which is insufficient to warrnt the call of yuko; also awarded for any pin held between 10-14 seconds.

Matte - command to stop; given when contestants stray outside the contest area, commit an infraction of the rules, lack combativity, postured unsafely or need to repair their judogi or in the event of an injury

Newaza - ground fighting

Osaekomi - declaration of a hold-down; given when one of the contestants has secured a pin; a secure pin is one in which the opponenet is down on his or her back while the judoka executing the pin has his or her legs free from entanglement and his or her stomach is facing the mat (45 degree angle to parallel)

Osaekomiwaza - pinning techniques

Osaekomi Toketa - declaration of a hold-down broken; stated when control has been lost by the attacker (see requirements in osaekomi)

Randori - full contact practice in newaza or takewaza; as stated by Jigoro Kano "randori is practiced under conditions fo actual contest. It includes throwing, choking, holding the opponent down and bending or twisting his arms...the tow combatants may use whatever methods they like, provided they do not hurt each other and obey the rules of judo etiquette"

Rei - salutation (bow)

Ritsu Rei - standing bow

Za Rei - seated bow

Shido - slight infringement call: often contestants are returned to their starting positions before the infringement is awarded; the infringement is given by calling shido and pointing at the appropriate contestant

Shimewaza - choke and strangulation techniques

Shizentai - natural posture

Sono-Mama - command to stop mat work: the command of matte is typically used when contestants are standing where this command is given when both contestants are off their feet. The command signals infractions, a check for injuries or to fix judogi

Sore-Made - Time is up

Tachi waza - fighting while standing

Ukemi - falls

Wazari - Declaration of a half-point; awarded when the throw does not warrent an ippon (due to lack of force or a landing that is not "square") or when the opponent has been held down for 20-24 seconds

Yoshi - command to resume mat work; once contestants are back into the original positions, this command is given to resume combat

Yuko - Declaration of a near half-point; awarded when a throw is not quite a wazari or if an opponent is held down for 15-19 seconds

Zempokaiten Ukemi - rolling falls over ones shoulder(s)